Author Archives: quadclover

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Designers and clients are often at   loggerheads when it comes to the final presentation of a project; be it the usual logo, banner or web design, the following scenarios could lead to the crop up of varying issues;

1)      Little or no involvement from the clients at the initial stage

2)      Inadequate research on the designer’s part

3)      No information from the clients

4)      Poor passing of Information from the designer to the client.

5)      Clients not being sure of what they want

6)      Designers being typically money-oriented

7)      No concept behind the design

8)      No two clients are the same.

9)      No official agreement

10)   Middle Man involvement


Now I will take time to explain all. We start from the very first


Little or no involvement from the clients in the initial stage

When it comes to web or logo design, clients don’t want to be involved in the design either at the initial stage or latter. stages; they want to be shown samples to select from. This causes a big headache since the designer can’t know what exactly the client wants hereby leading to a high percentage of rejection of initial designs; this can be very time-consuming.

Most times the designer has to “pull a rabbit out the hat“ to get what the client wants.


Inadequate research on the designer’s part

Most times, designers rely on their creativity only for the execution of the project. Sometimes it is not enough, and instead of doing more research on what he needs to do to get the client satisfied, he complains that the client is merely wasting his time. We live in a world where things are being developed and discovered every day, trends come and go and if we don’t carry out research, we get left behind.


                No information from the clients

Apart from the name of the company, no other information is given to the designer. The color combination, the desired fonts – whether it will be type-phase or with an emblem – for logo creation, or the website transition or animation. When it comes to web design, no picture is made available, or picture description given, and the designer is told to “come up with something”




Poor passing of Information from the designer to the client.

In the attempt to get a client, some designers promise the world and in the end they mess up; some designers are not familiar with the printing environment and that is why most of the designs that are made can’t be executed properly. So not telling them earlier will always result to conflicts.


Clients not being sure of what they want .

Most clients – due to no fault of theirs – have no idea of what they want and it is until he or she is shown something. They just want something “fine”. A reason for this is that clients aren’t mostly novices in the field and they expect the designer (as the expert) to ‘wow’ them. This isn’t meant to be case as it is the designer’s responsibility to ensure that they meet at a neutral ground and ensure the work flows smoothly.

Designers being typically money-oriented

Designers these days have really destroyed the market.  Most learn how to design only to get money. They don’t care about the quality of their works. Their mentality is that “The amount you pay will determine your design”. Money should never determine the quality of your work. If you are doing it for free or at a cheap price, your designs should speak for you.


No concept behind the design                                                     

Nowadays, you will see some designs and wonder if there is any story behind it. Does it really have anything to do with what the company is about? We have gone past the stage of “just anything” or”something fine”. But some people are still living in the past.


                No two clients are the same

Some designers feel that because he did something similar for the first client that he may be able to get away with tweaking the design a bit for the other client. Most times, things don’t work like we expect.


No official agreement

This is the main problem. There is no duration stated for the project to be concluded, so most jobs go on and on and on. Some go on for weeks, months. The mode of payment and the terms and conditions should be stated properly and both parties agree


Middle Man involvement

Dealing with a middle man can be problematic because there are some things the original client might say that the middle man could leave out. Most times, it is advisable to have direct contact with the client as the middle man is probably interested in making money.


This brings us to the end of this post. And before I forget, Quadclover will be designing logos – FOR FREE – from now till the end of April for the first set of people that send in their details. For more information, send a mail to

Thanks for reading.

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Technology has made the world look like a “global village”. Village in the sense, it has made it look smaller than it is really and this has been made possible by communication. Either picking up your phone to call someone that is a thousand miles away from you or making calls from your system (Skype), communication can be established. Communication is “relatively” cheap. It is cheaper than actually going to see the person in person. It is safe to say that the computers are “talking” to one another.

But let us not get ahead of ourselves; communication and technology were never this straightforward in the past. We had eras when only products from the same Vendor could only communicate. For example IBM systems could only communicate with each other.

So today we shall be looking at how communication was

Batch – oriented configuration

This is the oldest form of communications between systems and other resources. Each resource is assigned to a system and the resource isn’t released till the task is completed, hence the name “batch”. For example, if we have 3 systems, 1 printer, 1 scanner. One system is assigned the printer and another one the scanner has while the last one is free. If the last system wants to print it has to wait for the system using the printer, so if it has a thousand and one jobs to print, it has to finish before it is released. Pretty inefficient and wasting a lot of time being idle.

Time – sharing Multi-user

Ideas were worked on to help eliminate the problem of time wasting; the idea of time sharing was accepted at that time. Time sharing in the sense that each system was given equal time with the resources. So once the time elapses, the resource is released so another can take it. I am sure some of you are wondering what if the next available system doesn’t need it at that time, wouldn’t it be needless holding onto it. This was also worked on, so after a while if the system isn’t using it, it is forced to release it.

Single – User

It got to be a point when it was necessary for a house to have a complete system and other resources without it been shared by other systems. This is found in most homes where 1 system is connected to a printer.


After the phase of single user communications, it was thought of that it will be cost effective if computer systems could share resources. Share in the sense that they can access them whenever they needed it without waiting for a period of time or a batch to finish. Switches and bridges were introduced so as to solve the problem. It appears that all the systems were in the same area within few meters away from each other. Hence the name, Local Area Network, or LAN as it is commonly known as.

Private WANs (Metropolitan)

After the development of LAN, technology began to grow and the need for a larger network .Mentioned earlier, LAN could only be effective until a certain distance. MAN and WAN came into place. MAN is the acronym for Metropolitan Area Network and it was sufficient for connecting networks within a geographical area while WAN is the acronym for Wide Area Network.

The Internet is a public WAN, but there are many ways to create a business model or private version. A private network is essentially two or more LANs connected to each other. For example, a company with offices in Lagos, Portharcourt and Abuja might have a LAN setup at each office. Through leased telephone lines, all three LANs can communicate with each other, forming a WAN.

Publicly Switched Data Networks (WAN)

PSDN stands for public switched data network; this is another alternate to WAN. A PSDN is a way to lease time to access other information by other computers. It is maintained and developed by a vendor. They might lease this “line” for personal use or to an organization, which is more likely.

PSDNs save cost because a company does not have to lease the entire network for that given time; all they have to do is pay for the access to the network.

The location where the PSDN networked is accessed is called POP (point of preference). An example of this is the phone number you dial to call someone else. Once a site has connected to the proper PSDN POP it also has obtains access to other sites connected to the PSDN. Basically the company or organization is paying for the traffic it is sending via the lines to PSDN. There are three protocols associated with PSDN, Frame Relay, ATM and Ethernet. ATM supports the fastest speed and also can support voice and data communications. They operate at different speeds and the client can choose which one fits them the best.


The Internet is a worldwide, publicity accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a “network of networks” that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (www).


An intranet is a computer network that shares information, operational systems, or computing services within an organization. The term simply means a network within an organization. Sometimes, the term refers only to the organization’s internal website, but may consist of multiple local area networks. The objective is to organize each individual’s desktop with minimal cost, time and effort to be more productive, cost efficient, timely, and competitive.

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file system

Technology has a funny way of sneaking on you, if you fail to update yourself regularly, thinking that you are a guru in the IT world and just like that *snaps fingers*, you are not familiar with what is going on anymore. Everything looks like a mystery to you; trust me; it wouldn’t take long or much for that to happen.
Let us move ahead, we are living in a generation where information is vital to our survival. We keep information about ourselves, music we like and so on and technology has provided us with ways of storing these vital information, different storage devices, different sizes, volumes, removable or not.
Sadly, it is not only having the storage devices that can guarantee efficient storage, but also having the right file system assigned to them. The file system simply manages the access to the data and manages the available space of the device(s) which contain it. It is very vital to map the right file system to the right storage devices, by doing so to increases the efficiency.
Ensuring reliability is a major responsibility of a file system. A file system organizes data in an efficient manner, and may be tuned to the characteristics of the backing device.
We have different file systems but the well known ones include
FAT (File Allocation Table).
The original file system that was meant for removable devices such as floppy disk, flash drives but there was always a problem with it. Let us takeFAT32 (which is part of the FAT family) for example, it limited you to a 4GB file allocation. I am pretty sure it wouldn’t be effective when we are having flash drives of 8GB and 16GB and hard drives going up to 2 TB and it was because of this flaw, that the file system was worked on and improved upon and exFAT came into the light.
exFAT (Extended File Allocation Table) Which was brought in to replace the old FAT system was designed especially for flash drives developed by Microsoft. It doesn’t restrict you to a 4GB like FAT. It can run efficiently on any Operating System.
NTFS ( New Technology File System)
Was developed by Microsoft. Yes, u saw it right. It was used as the file system for Hard drives because NTFS files were not easily damaged. It could however not be used for other removable devices efficiently because it uses a lot of flash memory.
exFAT should be considered a true competitor to NTFS on systems with limited processing power and memory. NTFS on flash memory has been known to be inefficient for quite some time. However, since it wasn’t made for hard drives originally, it cannot completely replace NTFS.
At this point, it might not still be clear to some what we are talking about; here is an illustration to help with that.
Mike is a brilliant guy, graduated top of his class. He could do almost everything, video games, swimming, you name it; but when it came to knowing about computer and computer stuffs, he just could not be bothered. All along, when it comes to using his system, either he had a friend to help him or he guesses what to click pops up requiring his attention and so far so good, it had been working for him. When he was about to resume work at a reputable firm, his fiancée got him a Flash drive (16 GB) and a hard drive because she felt he would be needing them a lot.
So he put the flash in his system, and he was asked to format it. He had 3 options, either FAT32, NTFS or exFAT, he thought to himself, NTFS sounds a lot like NTSC (gamers will understand this better), so it couldn’t be it and exFAT sounds a lot of stress so it couldn’t be either that it had to be FAT32 and since that was the original option then it had to be it. So he selected it, formatted the flash and started to use it.
One day at work, he wanted to copy a file to his flash drive but it kept on saying the drive was full but he could see that there was over 8GB free space left. So he called one of his colleagues to help him out. Immediately, the colleague asked him what file system he used, he quickly said FAT32. His colleague went on to explain the problem and told him that his best option would have been exFAT.
I guess that would have cleared some questions you wanted to ask. If there aren’t any question, lets do a little exercise to know if you understood everything.
1)Which of the file System could and should be used on a flash drive of 1gb
2)Which of the file System could and should be used on a flash drive of 4gb
3)Which of the file System could and should be used on a flash drive of 8gb
4)Which of the file System could and should be used on an external Hard drive
1)exFAT and FAT32
That sums up it all and with that we have gotten to the end of another post.

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A new trend in the world which doesn’t look like it is not going to go away anytime soon is blogging. Everybody owns a blog .Be it a blog for Music, News And Lifestyle like sowlradio  as personal Journals like kemiand ibukun and an information blog, like this one you are reading at the moment.

For those that didn’t know we have different blogging platforms, word press, blog spots, blogger, the list is endless. They can be controlled through what we call dashboard where you can check the number of times people have visited your blog, daily, weekly, month, you can create a new post and customize the layout  of your blog  by simply logging in to their account.

Just like a blog where you can control by the dashboard, a website is controlled by a control panel. After you pay for your domain name and hosting, you will be given a username and a password where you can manage your website.

The question I am sure most of you are asking right now is “How do I access the control panel of my website”. Read the steps and you will be able to answer that question by yourself.

  • Type your control panel’s address into your web browser’s address bar, such as “,” then press “Enter.” You are directed to the login page. Type in the username and password for your account.
  • Go to the “Logs” section of your control panel and click “Choose Log Programs” to set up the statistics program you want to use.
  • Check the program you want to use — “Analog,” “Awstats” and/or “Webalizer” — and click “Save.”
  • Click “Awstats,” “Analog Stats,” “Webalizer” or the log program you selected in the previous step to track your traffic (under “Logs”).
  • Click the “View” button to load the report. The number of visitors to your website is displayed. Scroll to the data you want to review.

There you have it, it is quite straightforward. That bring us to the end of another post.

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Let us take a moment to appreciate the unsung heroes of our generation, the Programmers, the real problem solvers. I mean let’s take Bill Gates for example, he must have thought about ways to make typing a lot easier, calculation a lot faster and slide presentations much more straightforward and came up with the Microsoft Office Application. We must not forget the Windows Operating System which was not user friendly in the 90’s and today it is a different story.

Maybe a lot of us would not appreciate it because we rarely buy the original copy. An original copy of windows 7 OS is about S100 d at least (N16, 000) and it is normally restricted to a specific number of users. Surprised yeah? When you can go to computer village at Ikeja to get a “copy” for a token. Do we really think that Bill Gates will be that rich because of your “token”?

Another example is Mark Zuckerberg, the co-founder of Facebook, although his is a different form of programming, web programming, he started it as a social site for some colleges and today he is reaching different continents and presently a billionaire.

Another form that is taking the whole world by storm and that is Mobile programming and the fact that it has different platforms depending on the mobile phone you are using. A mobile application will be different on an iphone, a blackberry and an android because they are on different platforms. We are even having mobile sites.

I have always admired programmers, in their own world they are like Superheroes, the level of concentration exhibited by most of them is quite exceptional, you can be by their sides and try to keep a conversation with them and they would not hear.

I guess that is what inspired me to be a programmer, actually, let me be honest; I always had the idea of creating a virus that my anti-virus will be the only 1 that can fix it and sell. K Because for you to have an anti-virus, you must first create a virus to test your “anti-virus”.

Nowadays, a programmer must equip himself with the knowledge of database otherwise he is referred to as an “incomplete programmer”.  Before we talk about what it has become, let us talk more about Software as a whole. We were taught that software is that part of the computer that we cannot touch or feel. This definition is no longer acceptable, that is because software is a collection of instructions that tell the computer what to do.

We have two categories of computer software:

i)                    Systems software: software designed to allow the computer manage its own resources and perform basic operations are called system software. They are also known as Operating Systems. Examples: Windows, Macintosh and UNIX

ii)                   Application software: is one that can perform tasks. It can either be customized to do a specific task or a general purpose one like Microsoft office



We have a lot of programming languages, the common ones being Java and C# and for the database administration, SQL and oracle. There are so many professional courses that require a certain level of programming. For example Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) that is to become a practicing Hacker and not only getting the certificate.

We can go on and on about the benefits of programming and no I am not lying, but decided to stop here for this post. Before I go, I will like to remove the thoughts most of you are having that to be a programmer, all you need to do is sitting in front of a computer and start coding. You might be right, you might as well make a program, but you will spend countless of hours working and re editing it if you do not have a proper plan of the application you wish to build(work flow, algorithm and flowchart).  All these will be talked about later.


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Graphics designing is the most underrated and crucial area in ICT in the world Today. Designing sets the bar for everything from web designing to application development, even in the production of Computer Systems; the designs are first made and approved before production starts. If the design does not tickle your fancy, in 9 out 10 cases, it will immediately put you off.

Like they always say a picture is more than a thousand words. Imagine if you go to a website and all you see is text, many of us will not visit the site again. Knowing how important it is, it is surprising that a lot of people are still insisting on paying far less than its worth. I mean telling someone you will only pay two thousand naira to someone that spent many hours in designing is ridiculous.

Graphic designing also allows an opportunity for a wide range of people. We have a lot of people using Computer aided application. There are also applications for architects and engineers that allow you to design in their own way. For example, AutoCAD.

Time has moved from drawing on a piece of paper to working with a system whether it is with Corel draw, Photoshop or illustrator and others. There are quite a number of tools used for photo editing apart from Photoshop, an example will be Lightroom.

Photoshop is the most used because of its numerous functionalities and also being easy to use but it has a major disadvantage, Printers are reluctant to print Photoshop works.

Before Adobe bought the full rights some years back, Photoshop, firework and the likes were owned by Macromedia.







Wow, that looks cool.

You computer science students nowadays are going places, Jane said. I finished from creative arts not computer science, Tunde responded. Then why did you learn it, she inquired. I need it for my work, he replied. Your work, isn’t that dancing and drawing? She asked. That is what In I thought until my 3rd year in UNILAG when I was told we were going to do Corel Draw and Photoshop and since then I fell in love with it. Photo shoot, she asked, isn’t that for models. He chuckled, not photo shoot, Photoshop. They are different. With the introduction of these computer-aided applications such as Photoshop and Corel, it has added a new dimension to professional ism for Photographers and Fashion designers alike. Fashion designers, Jane finally said. How will it improve professionalism fashion designers, you know I am one. Oh that’s true, fashion designers nowadays have a collection of magazines where a client can select the style he likes, there really isn’t any form of originality. Imagine, making yourself unique, in addition to having the magazines, designing it for the client after he must have chosen. Let us be honest, he only chose it because it looked good on the person and it might not necessarily go well with him. I iy don’t understand, Jane replied. A client tells you what he wants; you design it and send it to him. It might look as extra work but it makes you stand out and to me, people will definitely pay more to someone that takes his time to create than someone that will just copy people’s old work and give it back.

If you are a fashion designer, photographer or you are interested in learning Photoshop and Corel. Quadclover will be running batches in January. Book now and save up to 20%.  Send a mail to

That brings us to the end of this post but before we go, we will like to say thank you to all the graphic designers that contributed to the forum #graphicsforum, @sammie_toch, @yinkabank @frankonero5 @demspanish @grafixnerd @Tjthe1st  and @ekpizzle.



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“Why is it raining this night, I NEED to send an important email!” Paul wondered to himself. “Every time it rains, voila! – network glitches” He continued, “Take a look at this Blackberry, the BB network indicator seems to be undergoing some sort of weird metamorphosis – GSM to GPRS to edge to EDGE to SOS, ahh! there’s my 3G logo; SHOOT! there it goes again, back to SOS”. “Perhaps MTN and bad weather are mortal enemies”, at this stage Paul was visibly frustrated.

Attempting to use AIRTEL BIS in Maryland is synonymous to trying to stop Lionel Messi from scoring goals, sorry to burst your bubble, but that just won’t work. I can never forget the last time, I paid for a month’s service and ended up using it for just a couple of days…Still expecting my refund from AIRTEL…

I wonder what this leaves us with….

“Darling, why don’t you use my universal modem” Cynthia asked. “Universal Wetin?!, how can it help me now?” Paul exclaimed. A universal modem can accept any sim card and does not restrict you to a particular network. “Ehen, I am telling you my job is at stake and you are busy ‘feeding me iron bread'”, Paul said.

“Keep calm and watch” said Cynthia as she powered on her system. After which, she inserted an ETISALAT sim in the modem and plugged it in – within a matter of minutes she was connected. She removed the ETISALAT sim and inserted a GLO sim and repeated the same process and she was connected as well; Paul was startled.

“Darling! Darling!! it is working” shouted Paul. Let me send the Mail right now. 10 minutes later, he was done and relaxed now, he asked where she got the modem and if she knew all the codes for the subscription.

She said he could get the modem anywhere in Ikeja. As for the codes, she was not sure she could remember all.

Like Paul, some of us have secretly wished there was a place that we can go to and see all the data plans and amount side by side. Fret not, you will find below the data plan and amount for MTN, AIRTEL, ETISALAT AND GLOBACOM.


1 500 All 1 day 150 103
2 2500 9pm-6am 1 month 3000 102
3 8000 All 1 month 5000 101
4 3000 Weekend(fri-mon) 1 month 3000 108
5 6000 Day time(9am – 9pm) 1 month 3000 107

Send all codes to 131. To check your balance send 2 to 131


1 100 All 1 day 10 104
2 400 All 1 week 25 105
3 1000 All 1 month 100 106

Send all codes to 131. To check your balance send 2 to 131



1 3,000 Unlimited BIS Monthly 1 MONTH text BIS to 21600
2 1,500 BIS Complete 1 MONTH text BBC to 21600
3 1,000 BIS Weekly 1 WEEK text BBWEEK to 21600
4 500 BIS Complete Weekly 1 WEEK text BBCWEEK to 21600



1 400 All 1 week 25 *141*712*9#
2 3000 All 1 month 1000 *141*712*10#
3 100 All 1 day 10 *141*712*11#


4 1000 All 1 month 100 *141*712*4#



1 500 All 1 day 150 *141*712*3#
2 5000 All 1 month 3000 *141*712*1#
3 8000 All 1 month 5000 *141*712*2#
4 15000 All 1 month 10000 *141*712*5#
5 2500 Night 1 month 2500 *141*712*7#
6 3000 weekends 1 month 3000 *141*712*8#

N/B dial *141*712*0# to check your balance.


1 3,000 Unlimited BIS Monthly 1 MONTH Send BISMONTH to 444
2 1,400 BIS Complete 1 MONTH Send BCM to 444
3 1,000 BIS Weekly 1 WEEK Send BISWEEK to 444
4 400 BIS Complete week 1 WEEK Send BCW to 444




1 3000 All 1 month 500 *229*2*2#
2 5000 All 1 month 1500 *229*2*4#
3 6500 All 1 month 3000 *229*2*3#
4 8000 All 1 month 6000 *229*2*5#
5 5000 Night & weekends 9pm-7am 1 month 3000 *229*3*3#


1 1000 All 1 month 100 *229*2*1#
2 500 All 1 week 50 *229*3*4#
3 100 All 1 day 10 *229*3*1#

Dial *228# to check your balance


1 3,000 Unlimited BIS Monthly 1 MONTH dial *399*1#
2 1,500 BIS Complete 1 MONTH *499*3#
3 1,000 BIS Weekly 1 WEEK dial *399*6#
4 500 BIS Complete Weekly 1 WEEK *499*3*1#



Plan Name Service Rental Data Cap Validity Period Code SMS to 127 Target Device
Instant Surf N100 10MB 24 hours *127*51# ‘51’ Handset
One Week N400 50MB 7 days *127*52# ‘52’ Handset
Always Micro N1,000 200MB 30 days *127*53# ‘53’ Handset
Always Macro N3,000 1,024MB (1GB) 30 days *127*54# ‘54’ Handset/Tablet
Plan Name Service Rental Data Cap Validity period Code SMS to 127 Time of use
Always MAX N7,500 6GB 30 days *127*1# ’12′ All day
Always MIN N5,000 3GB 30 days *127*2# ’11′ All day
Always Day N500 150MB 24 hours *127*3# ’10′ All day
G 300 N15,000 9GB 300 hours/3months *127*4# ’21′ All day
G 100 N6,000 3GB 100 hours/1month *127*5# ’20′ All Day
G work N6,000 3GB 30 days *127*6# ’31′ 8am – 9 pm
G leisure N5000 3GB 30 days *127*7# ’30′ 8pm to 9am everyday + all day during weekends




1 2,800 Unlimited BIS Monthly 1 MONTH Send BISMONTH to 777
2 1,400 BIS Complete 1 MONTH Send COMONTH to 777
3 900 BIS Weekly 1 WEEK Send BISWEEK to 777
4 400 BIS Complete Weekly 1 WEEK Send CoWEEK to 777

Have a lovely weekend ahead. 🙂

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Navigating round the system can be cool, exciting but equally stressful and time consuming if not for the shortcuts made available to us. Shortcuts are a set of instructions or commands given by computer users to the computer to perform specific functions. For instance, imagine you want to select over a thousand items, instead of holding the control key and clicking on the items or dragging the mouse over the items, you simply hold the control key and hit the “a” key and it selects everything. Quite easy, eh?!, But I bet most of you already knew that. That is just one of the numerous ways in which shortcuts are helpful.

Shortcuts can also be created for files and folders by right- clicking on the desktop, selecting new and under it shortcuts. You can also create commands to make your system shutdown (that will be for later).

Knowing all the shortcuts doesn’t make you computer competent. It just makes our works that much easier and faster.

Let us discuss the shortcuts we all know. Apart from the one we mentioned earlier we have quite a number, the famous “copy and paste”, otherwise known as “control c” and “control v”. The “control z” which is simply to undo the last action. I can go on and on, Yes!, ‘dem plenty!’. “Wouldn’t it be nice if we can get all the shortcuts collated in one place”, some of you may have wondered. We have collated as much as we could.

If you are interested in becoming computer competent, email us at now



1 Alt+Enter Display properties for selected item 18 F2 Rename Selected file
2 Alt + F4 Close Active windows or program 19 F3 Search for file or folder
3 Alt + Double + Click Display Properties dialog box 20 F4 Displays Address Bar list
4 Alt + Tab Switch Between open windows or programs 21 F5 Refresh active windows
5 Backspace Open a folder one level up 22 F6 Cycle through screen element in a window
6 Ctrl + A Select All 23 F10 Activate the Menu Bar
7 Ctrl + C Copy highlighted text selection 24 Shift + Ctrl + Esc Task Manager
8 Ctrl + X Cut 25 Shift + F10 Display shortcut Menu for selected item
9 Ctrl + V Paste (copied item) 26 Shift Stop an auto-run CD from playing automatically
10 Ctrl + Z Undo 27 Win key + D Display the desktop
11 Delete Delete 28 Win key + E Opens My Computer
12 Shift + Delete Delete without sending to Recycle Bin(do this with caution) 29 Win key + F Search for Files and Folder
13 Ctrl + Drag Copy 30 Win key + M Minimize all Open windows
14 Ctrl +shift +Drag Create short cut 31 Win key +shift + M Restore all Minimized open windows
15 Ctrl + F4 Close active documents in multiple document program 32 Win key + L Lock the Computer
16 Ctrl + Win key + F Search for Computers 33 Win key + R Open the run dialog Box
17 Ctrl + Esc Display the Start menu      



Is that all? Some of you may have wondered. Some of you would have gone further to ask if there are shortcuts for applications (for example Microsoft Word, excel and the likes).

Yes we do have shortcuts and some of the shortcuts listed above can also be used in these applications






1 Ctrl + A Select all contents of the page 16 Ctrl + W Close current document
2 Ctrl + B Bold highlighted selection 17 Ctrl + X Cut selected Text
3 Ctrl + C Copy selected Text 18 Ctrl + Y Redo the Last action
4 Ctrl + D Open the font dialog Box 19 Ctrl + Z Undo last action
5 Ctrl + E Align the line or selected text to the center of the screen 20 Ctrl + Shift + > Increase selected font +1. pt up To 12pts. and then increase font +2pts.
6 Ctrl + F Open find and replace Box 21 Ctrl + Shift + < Decrease selected font -1pts if 12pt. or lower, if above 12 decrease font by +2pts.
7 Ctrl + G + or Ctrl + F5 Open find and replace Box 22 Ctrl + ] Increase selected font +1pts.
8 Ctrl + H Open find and replace Box 23 Ctrl + [ Decrease selected font –pts.
9 Click, Hold and drag More highlighted text from one point to the other 24 Ctrl + Del Deletes word to right of cursor
10 Ctrl + I Italicize highlighted selection 25 Ctrl +Backspace Deletes a word towards the left of cursor
11 Ctrl + J Justify (spread) the text across the page 26 Ctrl + Home Moves the cursor to the beginning of the document
12 Ctrl + K Insert link 27 Ctrl + End Moves the cursor to the End of the document
13 Ctrl + L Align the Line or selected text to the left of the screen 28 Ctrl +1 Single-Space lines
14 Ctrl + M Indent the paragraph 29 Ctrl + 2 Double-Space lines
15 Ctrl + Mouse wheel Zoom the Document 30 Ctrl + 5 1.5-line spacing
31 Ctrl + N Open a new Document 41 Ctrl + Spacebar Reset highlighted text to the default font
32 Ctrl + O Open an existing Document 42 Ctrl + F1 Open the task pane
33 Ctrl + P Open print window 43 Ctrl + F2 Print preview
34 Ctrl + R Aligns the line or selected text to the right of the screen 44 Double-click on a word Select the word
35 Ctrl + S Save the current  document 45 Triple-click on a line Select the paragraph
36 Ctrl + T Reduce hanging indent `46 Shift + F3 Cycle selection through sentence case, capital, and small letters
37 Ctrl + Shift + T Increasing Hanging indent 47 F4 Repeat the last action performed
38 Ctrl + M Increase paragraph indent from left to right 48 F5 Open the field, replace, and go to window in Microsoft Word
39 Ctrl + U Underline Selection 49 F7 Spell and grammar check selected text and /or document
40 Ctrl + V Paste Contents of Clipboard 50 F12 Save as




1 Alt + = Auto sum all values above the

Selection cell

18 Ctrl + 0 Hides the selected column
2 Alt + F1 Create chat of selected range 19 Ctrl + F6 Switch between open workbooks/windows
3 Alt + F2 Save As 20 Ctrl + F9 Minimize current window
4 Alt + Shift + F1 Insert new worksheet 21 Ctrl + F10 Maximize current minimized window
5 Ctrl + A Select all content of the worksheet 22 Ctrl + Page Up Move to the left among open worksheet
6 Ctrl + B Bold highlighted selection 23 Ctrl + page Down Move to the right among open worksheet
7 Ctrl + C Copies selected cell 24 Ctrl + Tab Cycle through open excel files
8 Ctrl + D Uses the fill Down command to copy the contents and format of the topmost cell of a selected range into the cell below 25 Ctrl + ‘ Insert the Value of the above cell in to the current cell
9 Ctrl + F Find 26 Ctrl + Shift + + Insert dialog box
10 Ctrl + G Go to 27 Ctrl + Shift + ~ Remove the outline border from the selected cells
11 Ctrl + H Replace 28 Ctrl + Shift + ! Format number in comma format
12 Ctrl + I Italicized 29 Ctrl + Shift + $ Format number in currency format
13 Ctrl + K Insert link 30 Ctrl + Shift + # Format number in date format
14 Ctrl + K Insert link, to remove link, select link, hold Ctrl and Click. Then click on Remove link button 31 Ctrl + Shift + % Format number in percentage format in no decimal spaces
15 Ctrl + U Underline highlighted selection 32 Ctrl + Shift + ^ Format number in scientific format
16 Ctrl + P Show print dialog Box 33 Ctrl + Shift + @ Format  number in time format
17 Ctrl + Z Undo last section 34 Ctrl + Spacebar Select entire column
35 Ctrl + 1 Display format cells dialog box 43 Shift + Spacebar Select entire Row
36 Ctrl + 2 Bold selected cell 44 F2 Select cell for editing
37 Ctrl + 3 Italicize 45 F5 Go to
38 Ctrl + 4 Underline 46 Shift + Arrow key Extend selection by one cell
39 Ctrl + 5 Strikethrough 47 Ctrl + Shift + ( Unhide any hidden columns within the selection.
40 Ctrl + 6 Alternates between hiding objects, displaying objects 48 Ctrl + Shift + ) Unhide any hidden rows within the selection
41 Ctrl + 8 Displays or hides the outline symbols 49 Shift F3 Open Excel formula window
42 Ctrl + 9 Hides the selected row 50 Shift F5 Find






1 Backspace or Up Arrow key Previous slide during presentation 21 Ctrl + Z Undo
2 Ctrl + F Find 22 Ctrl + = Change to subscript
3 Ctrl + G Change grid and guide settings 23 Ctrl + Shift + + Superscript
4 Ctrl + H Replace 24 Ctrl + F1 Show/ hide task pane
5 Ctrl + I Italicize Text 25 Ctrl + Shift + > Increase font size
6 Ctrl + J Justify text 26 Ctrl + Shift + < Decrease font size
7 Ctrl + K Insert hyperlink 27 Ctrl + Shift + C Copy format
8 Ctrl + L Left align 28 Ctrl + Shift + F Change font
9 Ctrl + M New slide 29 Ctrl + Shift + P Change font size
10 Ctrl + O Open 30 Ctrl + Shift + V Paste Formats
11 Ctrl + P Print 31 Ctrl + Shift + Tab Switch between outline and slides pane in normal view
12 Ctrl + Q Close PowerPoint 32 Ctrl +  Up Arrow Go up one paragraph
13 Ctrl + R Right align Text 33 Enter or Down Arrow key Next Slide
14 Ctrl + S Save 34 Esc, Ctrl, + Break or hyphen End Slide show
15 Ctrl + T Font dialog Box 35 Shift + F3 Change Text Case
16 Ctrl + U Underline highlighted text 36 Shift + F7 Thesaurus
17 Ctrl + V Paste 37 Shift + F9 Shoe or hide grid lines
18 Ctrl + W Close preparation 38 F1 Help
19 Ctrl + X Cut 39 F5 Slide Show
20 Ctrl + Y Redo last Action 40 F10 Set focus to first menu, File menu

That brings us to the end of this post. Thanks for Reading.

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Look up in the sky, it’s a bird, it’s a plane, NO!  It’s Sky drive -the future- that backs up data in a cloud. You have heard the popular saying “one day, we will build houses in the sky”. Well the ICT world is ahead, putting in place means for ‘storing data in clouds’. Rain clouds you say?  Of course not! A cloud in IT will only have meaning when concatenated with “computing”.

Cloud computing comes into focus when you think about what IT always needs – a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the go without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software.


Before focusing totally on skydrives and cloud computing, I would like to remind you about other types of storage devices still being utilized. We shall also tell you which one is best and why, the best time to back up and how to remind you to back up.

1)      Floppy disks: this is slowly being phased out – if it hasn’t been completely – we have two types.    3½ and 5 1/4. They are used to store data of less than 10MB in size. It is not suitable for places that require large storage of data.



i.)                  It is affordable

ii.)                 It is portable


I)        It does not allow for large storage

II)      It is slowly being phased out.

2)      CDs/DVDs:  they are capable of holding up to 8GB worth of data. Contrary to popular belief, they can transfer viruses -not all of them though- the ones which can transfer viruses are the writeable and rewritable discs while the readable ones cannot.



i)                    It is affordable and easy to use.

ii)                   It is portable

iii)                 It allows more space for storage than the floppy disk


i)                    It can easily be damaged

ii)                   If the lens of the disc drive becomes weak, data cannot be read

3)      Flash Drives and Hard Disk Drives: Data can be backed up to another storage device which uses USB ports. These devices are portable and can be used to transfer and back-up large data. Though special care must be taken to avoid it going bad.



i)                    It allows the most storage for data


I)                    If the hard drive becomes unreadable, data can be lost completely.

4)      SkyDrive: Skydrive is based on the principles of cloud computing.

Cloud computing is at an early stage, with a crew of providers large and small delivering a slew of cloud-based services, from full-blown applications to storage services to spam filtering. Yes, utility-style infrastructure providers are part of the mix, but so are SaaS (software as a service) providers such as Today, for the most part, IT must plug into cloud-based services individually, but cloud computing aggregators and integrators are already emerging.

We have two types.

The first allows a single application to be used by a thousand customers. No investment in servers is required. It is called SaaS.

Secondly, the utility computing offers storage and virtual servers that IT can access on demand.


i)                    It provides the most secure form of backing up.


I)                    Because of the nature of our internet service, it is not advisable.

Sky Drive utilizes the cloud computing principle but it really means backing up your files online. Microsoft and Google offer this.


John has been working with a reputable company for over 3 years. He sees how his superiors in the IT room handle networking issues on a daily basis and has always been impressed. One day, he decided to go for the well known professional course Cisco Certified Networking Associate (CCNA). It took him 4 months to read and pass. He came back all smiles and resumed work.

A couple of weeks later, he was put on night duty and was told to monitor the network. He was grinning from ear to ear; because this was the first time he was going to be alone. One of his superiors, Dipo, was at the hospital expecting his first child while the other, Charles, left the office early as he wasn’t feeling too well.

John who passed the professional exam without actually using a live router decided to use this time to experiment and forgot to save the configuration of the router. After a couple of minutes, he crashed the network. Devastated, he knew with this, he was certainly getting the boot in the morning. He called Dipo telling him what he had done. Dipo in a calm voice told him that he will be with him shortly.

Dipo arrived an hour later, and within 20 minutes, he had restored the network. Curious, John inquired of Dipo asking what he did. Unknowingly to John, Dipo had told Charles to copy out the configuration before leaving the office every night.


Windows gives you the opportunity to back up your files with the automatic backup and restore feature. It can be found in the control panel and it is very easy to use.

select backup and restore

select set backup

Select where you will like to back up to

That is all there is to It.

That brings us to the end of this week. Have a lovely weekend.

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Happy Independence Day in arrears people. Shall we rise for the national anthem? (Nah just kidding). That is definitely not why we are here. But let’s not forget something Nigeria celebrated her 52nd year of independence. Most of us are asking what we have to show for it. Yes, we are not living the way we would have liked. Good roads, constant power supply and better living conditions and Boko Haram stop with the killing. But we have a lot to be grateful about.

First of all, it could have been worse than what it is. We don’t have any natural disaster happening in any part of Nigeria. Secondly, unlimited Opportunities. Majority are waiting for government to provide them with jobs while they sit back and fold their arms. I hate to break it to you, but that ship has long sailed.

Apart from the crude oil and other natural resources, Nigeria has not fully explored one area which is ICT. Hate it or love it, it is not going away anytime soon. Most companies require applicants to be computer competent. Even more so, we are having computerized job tests. Before I continue, I will like to say there is a difference between being computer literate and competent. Even so, the difference between a computer literate and an “illiterate” is that one knows about computer while the other does not. While being competent is using the computer to achieve a specific task given.

We have different areas in computing. Networking, software development, web development and the likes. We would not be talking about those ones for now. We will start with the most popular requirement for increasing chances of getting a job and that is getting familiar with Microsoft office.

Do you know you can get a lot more from the Microsoft office package? Did you know that you can use Microsoft excel to design and even make web pages. Yes you saw right and no I am not crazy.

Let’s start with the one everyone knows or think they know

a)      Microsoft word: is a Word processing application. Word processing in the sense that it handles creating, editing, saving of text documents. You can also design invoices, receipts and the likes. Some people go as far as using it to design letter headed papers. It is possible. I am sure a lot of people didn’t know this.

b)      Microsoft Excel: handles most of the calculations, analyzing data and expressing them in forms of bar chart, pie chart, and the likes. We pretty much know these already. But did you know that you can design as well.  These were done in excel and I kid you not.

c)       Microsoft PowerPoint: creating and editing presentation or slide shows, meetings and web pages have never been this easy. You can also alter the orientation of the slide shows, increase or slow down and many more.

d)      Microsoft Outlook: Is a tool for sending and receiving mail. It is much more than that. It can also serve as your organizer. Keeping records of tasks done and setting reminders for appointments.

e)      Microsoft Access: Is a tool for creating and managing of database and the likes.

f)       Microsoft publisher: This particular application is relatively new and very useful. You can create almost everything from business cards, banners, brochures, calendar, envelope, flyers, greeting cards, invitation cards, newsletter, letterheads, programs, cvs, websites and complimentary cards. The only catch is that you can only make use of the templates provided. So if you are looking for something unique. Sorry, this would not help.

There are other applications in the whole package. We only decided to mention a few. The only thing left for me to say is stop underutilizing your office application.

If you wish to know more about ICT or getting more from your Microsoft office or the prospect of getting involved in ICT and also a show case of the courses we offer training on Visit for more info or send a mail to us or call 08097913802

Thank you and God Bless.

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